Why Shovel? History, Benefits, and Choices of Snow and Ice Management

History of Snow Removal

According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center, early snow manage tries worried citizens leveling drifts of snow to ease sleigh site visitors inside the 1700s. Several towns had ordinances requiring homeowners to clean their sidewalks, but streets had been no longer cleared on a city-wide basis. Travel and the changing of goods, consequently, trusted individuals clearing the streets themselves. Wintertime travel inside the early 1800s changed into in the main strolling as a end result. With extended industrialization in the mid 1800s got here the first snow plow, drawn with the aid of horses, and permitting transportation to get better speedy following iciness storms. The snow plow created the idea for municipal responsibility in snow elimination however new troubles had been additionally created, as merchants complained about the removed mounds of snow blocking off their storefronts and sidewalks Industrial snow removal.

Sleigh drivers also disapproved of the ruts and choppy floor of the streets following plowing. Some cities responded by using hiring shovelers to paintings along with the plows to haul the snow away and sell off into rivers. Salt become used in some towns however was strongly protested as it ruined the streets for sleighing and broken the clothes and shoes of pedestrians. Following the snowfall in 1888, towns diagnosed the need for more prepared and efficient snow removal. Rather than ready until the hurricane was almost over, metropolis officers started out to plow because the hurricane began, giving better results and more swiftly cleared roads. By dividing towns into sections and hiring extra drivers, streets were cleared with more performance.

With the appearance of motorization, snow elimination turned into revolutionized inside the twentieth century. Motorized plows and dump vans arrived as early as 1913. Many towns abandoned horse-drawn carts and motorized their snow elimination fleets. Caterpillar tractors prepared with plow blades were applied, along side vehicles, for plowing, even as steam shovels, cranes and railway flatcars were used to haul snow away. Snow loaders also got here into use within the early 1900s. As extra motors took to the road, although, new problems ensued, as public protection demanded elimination of even mild snowfalls. Furthermore, residential streets, in addition to major streets, needed clearing. Plowing left in the back of a slick layer of ice on the street so metropolis officers started spreading salt with the aid of the ton. No longer worried with protests, motorized salt spreaders have become an crucial device. Later lawsuits of harm to plants and cars by means of salt led to advanced salt spreaders with greater green gauges. With such a lot of automobiles on the road, purchasing centers and office buildings began to look a want to clean their parking masses for personnel and customers, thereby growing a specialised market. Smaller plows and snow blowers have been in call for and lots of those corporations turned to non-public snow removal contractors to clean their plenty.

While the introduction of motorized automobiles and subsequent technological advancements has made snow control and plowing faster, the primary method of plowing these days isn’t always an awful lot distinctive than it become seventy five years ago. Although the refinement of climate forecasting has allowed experts to better predict and put together for a typhoon, we nevertheless ought to anticipate the snow to fall, at which point we push it out of the way.

Why the want for snow elimination?

While falling snow may be an imposing website, a automobile parking space, avenue or sidewalk of snow is dangerous and difficult to the ones decided to now not allow a snowstorm regulate their day. With so many people out and approximately, the ability for motor vehicle accidents will increase, as well as private harm from wet and icy parking lots and sidewalks. As ninety% of slips and falls occur in much less than an inch of snow, it’s far vital for groups to manipulate winter situations properly to lessen their legal responsibility. The protection of concrete and/or asphalt is an brought advantage of eliminating snow from your house.

Liability issues The National Safety Council estimates there are approximately 300,000 injuries and more than 1,500 deaths consistent with year due to wintertime weather. Premise liability laws problem a constructing owner’s duty to dispose of probably risky situations round their property to save you harm to visitors. This is the category of regulation beneath which accidents from ice and snowstorm. Building proprietors are given a window of time following the give up of the storm in which to clean their parking plenty and sidewalks of snow and ice and to take measures stopping ice from forming within the destiny.

This frequently includes tracking outdoor temperatures, if no longer pavement floor temperatures, and calls for a few form of surface remedy to useful resource in the prevention of ice. While many constructing owners hire outside corporations to manipulate snow situations, legal responsibility for injury is not necessarily transferred to their snow control contractors. It is important, therefore, to recognize your snow elimination alternatives, research capability snow removal groups and formulate a plan to be able to shield you, your private home, your personnel and your customers. These current verdicts in opposition to constructing owners and managers imply how critical slip and fall claims may be and underscore the importance of managing snow and ice on your house in a conscientious manner:

$475,000 offered to a New York woman who slipped and fell on a flea marketplace automobile parking space. The defendant claimed that the flea market proprietor and the owner of an adjoining lot have been negligent in clearing their lots from a snowfall the day prior to this.
$2 million awarded in Connecticut to a man who slipped on ice outside a hotel. The lawsuit claimed that the resort managers had been conscious that the place got icy for several years however did not accurate the hassle or warn pedestrians.
$390,000 presented to a Philadelphia guy who slipped in an icy commercial car parking zone. The man claimed the industrial park’s proprietor allowed rainwater to empty immediately on the lot and did now not salt, shovel or clear ice and snow from the lot.
$942,000 offered to an Omaha man who slipped on ice even as stepping over a pile of snow out of doors a hotel. The jury determined that the inn’s parking zone turned into no longer sufficiently lit to show the icy surface.

Effects of snow on concrete and asphalt Although concrete might also look like a completely solid item, it certainly carries severa microscopic passageways. These tunnels are fashioned at some point of the initial crystallization procedure as concrete is reworking from a liquid to a solid kingdom and the needles of interlocking cement paste crystals develop. When water freezes, its quantity expands with the aid of approximately nine percentage and any water that has entered these passages can smash the needles of the interlocking paste crystals. Snow left on concrete will soften and input the tunnels most effective to refreeze at night time and, over time, will cause cracks and potholes in your lot. Removing snow from the floor of your lot will hold the water content of the concrete down and reduce freezing damage, thereby helping to preserve your funding.

Asphalt is a combination of tar, oil byproducts, curative and mixture gravel unfold over compacted earth and gravel for drainage. Under warmness and strain from visitors, asphalt ultimately cracks leaving gaps for snow and water to enter. This water freezes for the duration of winter and the resulting expansion forces dirt and gravel out, leaving a hole while the water melts once more. The skinny asphalt layer over the hole is left weakened and finally collapses causing a pothole. To help save you this unsightly and doubtlessly unfavorable hazard, snow must be constantly eliminated from the surface. While it’s miles not possible to hold the asphalt completely dry for the duration of and following iciness storms, getting rid of blizzard will lower the quantity of water to be had to seep into the cracks and could limit freeze harm for your lot.

How surface treatments paintings

Snow-melt merchandise are designed to weaken the bond between ice/snow and the ground, no longer to absolutely soften all of the ice and snow that accumulates. Chemical deicers of their stable country are unable to melt some thing. When they come into touch with water, however, they dissolve into liquid brine and this salt solution lowers the freezing point of water and melts ice and snow on contact. The brine spreads out beneath the ice and breaks the bond between ice and pavement, permitting plows to split the ice from a surface. The melting action will continue till the brine is so diluted that the freezing factor of the solution reaches floor temperature. Some surface remedy chemicals also release heat when they dissolve in water, thereby melting snow more quickly. The efficiency of the diverse chemical compounds also depends on the temperature and whether or not the salt desires direct touch with moisture to dissolve or if it may absorb moisture from the air. All of these elements are essential to do not forget when selecting the quality deicer in your job.

Eutectic temperature The lowest possible temperature at which deicer brine can dissolve ice is called its eutectic temperature. The eutectic temperature, however, simplest applies to a particular attention of the deicer in water and no deicer is able to staying at this concentration for lengthy, because it constantly will become greater diluted as more ice and snow is melted. As the answer gradually will become weaker, the freezing point gradually will increase. Therefore, eutectic temperatures are drastically lower than the temperature at which a deicer can be effective. For example, the eutectic temperature of sodium chloride is -6ËšF however its effective temperature is best 15ËšF. The lowest effective temperature is a more significant variety to bear in mind while choosing a deicing product. Be sure to research a product’s ingredients and effective temperature, as deicer manufacturers will every so often lie to customers by means of marketing the eutectic temperature on packaging with out making clear what it manner.

Melting ability As temperatures drop, salt becomes less effective at melting ice and extra chemical is needed to get the task performed. The table below demonstrates how temperature impacts the melting potential of sodium chloride and shows that, at colder temperatures, greater salt is needed to soften ice. In less warm environments, deciding on a chemical with a lower effective temperature lets in a bigger quantity of snow to be melted according to pound of salt.

Melting fee Melting rate is a measure of how speedy melting takes place at one-of-a-kind temperatures and, like melting potential, the price is inspired through temperature.


Deicing merchandise can, alternatively, be unfold earlier than snow falls so that you can prevent ice from constructing up. Sitting on a floor, rock salt will do not anything, but because the snow falls the resulting brine prevents any bond from forming and leaves a parking zone equipped to be plowed. In addition to no longer having to await ice to be damaged down, the plowed floor will be cleanser than if it’s far plowed after ice has a threat to bond. Anti-ice applications typically contain beverages and, once they may be implemented, will have residual consequences for numerous days, i.E. They may stay on the pavement if the snowfall would not hit or shows up overdue. When the storm does hit, pre-treating a site will lessen service time and the quantity of chemical spread. Temperature can be a component, though, as the usage of beverages in temperatures which can be too heat can go away dangerous, slippery pavements. It is, therefore, vital to paintings with a well-trained contractor who knows these strategies.

Chloride brines vs. Dry salts

At colder temperatures, application consequences may be sluggish and require a huge amount of chemical. In excessive cold, the addition of liquid brine to rock salt can enhance chemical overall performance. To a few, the utility of a liquid to pavement appears counterintuitive and causes apprehension, however there’s no doubt that liquid deicers melt faster and remaining longer than traditional salt applications. Rock salt needs to shape a brine answer that is 23% salt to soften ice. Adding moisture to the dry salt before you spread it approach less moisture the salt desires to come back into touch with so that you can start doing its task. Furthermore, the brine sticks to the floor higher than dry salts, which may be scattered by using jump, site visitors and wind. Spreading pre-wetted salts makes use of considerably much less salt normal and reduces the time spent clearing your lot.


Sand is now and again spread with salt to enhance traction however after snow and ice have melted, sandy pavement has much less traction than sand-loose pavement. Tests performed with the aid of the National Safety Council have determined that salt offers as lots anti-skid safety as abrasives whilst carried out at regular deicing prices. The proper use of deicers together with the elimination of snow and ice ought to be enough and dispose of the need for sand.

Environmental results

Most environmental damage consequences now not from the product itself, but from misapplication or incorrect use of the product. Many of the chemicals used for deicing are also utilized in agricultural applications and aren’t necessarily damaging to plants. Danger from chemical deicers to the surroundings is posed while the attention of the chemical rises to abnormally excessive ranges within the soil. Just as fertilizers can reason die returned and browning while over implemented, care have to be taken now not to apply more salt than is needed for breakup and removal of snow and ice. The great manner to prevent harm is to keep away from overuse and to pick the most effective product to your scenario. Using the simplest product manner you may want much less chemical to clear the equal amount of ice and snow and limit publicity to flowers, bushes and shrubs.

Most harm to concrete from chemical deicers is not from the chemical compounds themselves but from the effects of freezing and thawing. By decreasing the freezing factor of water, deicers can boom the range of freeze-thaw cycles and upload to the hassle. When temperatures range between 10ËšF and 20ËšF, plain water will remain frozen. A deicing brine of rock salt and water, but, will freeze whilst the temperature drops below 15ËšF and thaw when it rises above 15ËšF resulting in more freeze-thaw cycles than if no deicer had been implemented. For this motive, it is vital to consider the bottom powerful temperature while selecting a chemical deicer. It is also important to take away the snow once the deicer has damaged the bond with the pavement. Removing the snow leaves much less water to be had to seep into holes of the concrete.

Green opportunity

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) turned into advanced in response to issues of the outcomes of salt on plant life and the concrete of systems which includes bridges and parking plenty. In the Nineteen Seventies, the Federal Highway Administration identified CMA as the simplest low-corrosion chemical opportunity to road salt. It is approximately as corrosive as faucet water and is biodegradable in soil. CMA can growth soil permeability, may additionally enhance plant boom and is not likely to reach groundwater but it does come at a charge: it charges about 30 instances greater than rock salt. While a few environmentally touchy situations require using CMA, most of the traditional chemical deicers pose no chance whilst implemented at right quotes.

Snow relocation

This exercise includes loading snow into unload trucks and hauling it to some other vicinity and can be an vital control tool for your enterprise. Rather than plowing snow into big piles inside the center of your car parking zone, taking on treasured space in a few instances, snow can be hauled away to any other website online to melt. Piles of dirty snow may be unattractive, conceal business symptoms and storefronts and create unsafe trails of melted snow which then refreeze when the temperature drops. By putting off snow off the lot, you can provide a secure, clear web site, lessen obstructions and increase pavement areas.

Snow removal contractors

The Better Business Bureau provides these tips on hiring a snow elimination contractor:

Get numerous estimates and keep in mind that the least expensive provider isn’t necessarily the first-rate.
Be sure you understand the price options and are aware of any additional prices. Do they rate based on inches of snow fallen or a flat rate according to season? How does the organisation determine the dimensions of the blizzard? Are there occasionally additional prices at some point of big storms?
Find out what is included in the estimate, along with sidewalks, steps and the cost of salt? Will the area be cleared at some stage in the hurricane as well as after? Are there additional expenses if the contractor has to return again?
Ask for references and check them out.
Check the BBB reliability file at the enterprise you are making plans on the usage of.
Make positive you get a written contract and the enterprise offers evidence that they may be insured and bonded. Ask who you can contact regarding any damages, including cracked driveways, and how you could terminate the agreement if essential.

Deicing products

Deicing materials vary substantially and can range from the acquainted rock salt to liquid chemical compounds. The type of cloth used depends on availability, environmental elements and effectiveness with reference to speed or temperature. No be counted which chemical you use to manipulate snow, it takes time for it to go into solution and soften ice, regardless of how plenty is applied. Understanding the deicer you pick out and its chemical houses can prevent over-making use of, defensive your property and saving you cash. While in no way exhaustive, here are some of the generally used remedies:

Sodium chloride: Known as rock salt, that is the most commonly used product due to its low fee and effectiveness at reasonably bloodless temperatures. It is easy to comfortable and calls for no unique coping with or storing approaches. Sodium chloride calls for warmness with a purpose to “cross into solution,” which it absorbs from the air and the pavement, accordingly making it an powerful ice-melting agent. One downside to sodium chloride is that it ought to come into direct contact with moisture which will dissolve so it does require greater time to be effective than other chemicals, such as calcium chloride and magnesium chloride. The lowest effective temperature is 15F.

Calcium chloride: Calcium chloride might be the second maximum generally used deicer. It is exothermic, that means it releases warmth because it is going into solution, and consequently works extra quickly than sodium chloride. Furthermore, in preference to requiring direct touch with moisture to dissolve, calcium chloride simply attracts moisture from the air, permitting it to start running more quick. It is also powerful at lower temperatures (as low as -20F) and is fantastically innocent to flowers and soil. The disadvantage to calcium chloride is that, because of its ability to draw moisture from the air, it calls for unique storage methods to prevent it from reacting before it is able to be spread. Furthermore, calcium chloride can create wet pavements and slippery conditions when not implemented nicely.

Magnesium chloride: This salt is also exothermic however has much less warmth-release functionality. It is, consequently, more green than sodium chloride, though not as powerful as calcium chloride. It can be used in temperatures as little as 0F and is much less poisonous to flora and much less corrosive than sodium chloride. However, like calcium chloride, it requires unique garage procedures due to its capacity to attract moisture. This compound is utilized in its crystal form for businesses and sidewalks however some of dual carriageway departments have increased their use of liquid magnesium chloride as a deicer and an anti-icer. The liquid compound is unfold on dry pavement earlier than precipitation or on wet pavement earlier than freezing temperatures to prevent snow and ice from bonding with the roadway.

Potassium acetate: A biodegradable liquid deicer that is less competitive on soil and much less corrosive. It is, therefore, favored for airport runways but isn’t always frequently used in different markets due to its excessive price. Potassium acetate can be applied in temperatures as low as -15F making this compound powerful at chillier temperatures.

Calcium magnesium acetate: Developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to avenue salt, calcium magnesium acetate is the safest chemical for concrete and plants as it’s far about as corrosive as faucet water. The fee, but, is ready 30 instances extra than rock salt. The effective melting temperature is approximately 20F.

Potassium chloride, ammonium sulfate and urea: Commonly used as fertilizer, these three chemical compounds are every so often used as deicers. All three are corrosive and have an effective temperature of 20F.

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Snow Control Team is positioned in Chesterfield Missouri and gives Commercial Snow Removal services, Ice Control Management services and 24 hour Winter Storm Watch for properties in St. Louis. We have been operating professional, price effective, dependable snow and ice manage offerings for over 12 years. We accredit our successful history as Snow Removal / Management Contractor to our organization’s severe agency and communique, blended with perfected snow elimination & ice manage techniques. It method that we are constantly prepared, completely conscious and constantly monitoring the ever-converting winter weather conditions effecting our clients homes. As one of the top snow removal & management carrier carriers in St. Louis, we are fully staffed and well ready to deal with the hardest winter storms. Our clients require their houses to be one hundred% liability loose, reachable and safe for the duration of inclement iciness climate – and that’s the snow manipulate services we provide. Research our Reputation, we’re the Solution!